The Trumpeter Swan is a large bird measuring 138 to 165 cm (54 to 65 in) long. The weight of adult birds is typically 7 to 13.6 kg, males average 11,9kg whereas the females are at 9,4kg. Their wingspan ranges from 185 to 250 cm (73 to 98 in). The adult Trumpeter Swan is all white in plumage. They have an upright posture and a straight neck at all times. The bird has a large, wedge-shaped black bill which is sometimes lined with salmon-pink coloration around the mouth. The black colour of the bill distinguishes it from other species.

Habitat and Distribution

Their breeding habitat is large shallow ponds, undisturbed lakes, pristine wetlands and wide slow rivers, and marshes in northwestern and central North America. Natural populations of these swans migrate to and from the Pacific coast and portions of the United States, flying in V-shaped flocks.


They eat while swimming and sometimes by dabbling for food. They eat the leaves and stems, roots and tubes of aquatic plants acquired by digging into mud. In winter they also eat grasses and grains.


Most egg laying occurs between late April and May. The female lays 3 to 12 eggs, in a mound of plant material on a small island, a beaver or muskrat lodge, or a floating platform on emergent vegetation. The same location may be used for several years. The nest consists of a large, open bowl of grasses, sedges and various aquatic vegetation. The pair builds the nest. Incubation takes 32 to 37 days.