The Indigo Bunting is a small songbird, with a length of 11.5 to 13 cm (4.5 to 5.1 in) with a wingspan of 18 to 23 cm(7,1 - 9,1 in). Body mass averages 14,5 g. It displays sexual dimorphism in its coloration; the male is a vibrant blue in the summer and a brown color during the winter months. Only the head is indigo. The male displays brightly colored plumage during the breeding season to attract a mate. The adult female is brown on the upperparts and lighter brown on the underparts all year round.It has indistinct wing bars and is faintly streaked with darker markings underneath.
Habitat and Distribution
The habitat of the Indigo Bunting is brushy forest edges, open deciduous woods and farmland. The breeding range stretches from southern Canada to Maine, south to northern Florida and eastern Texas, and westward to southern Nevada. The winter range begins in southern Florida and central Mexico and stretches south through the West Indies and Central America to northern South America.
The Indigo Bunting forages for food on the ground or in trees or shrubs. During the breeding season, the species eats insects, seeds and berries, including caterpillars, grasshoppers, spiders, beetles, and grass seeds.
Nesting sites are located in dense shrub or a low tree, generally 0.3 to 1 m above the ground. The nest itself is constructed of leaves, coarse grasses, stems, and strips of bark, lined with soft grass or deer hair and is bound with spider web. It is constructed by the female, who cares for the eggs alone. Clutch size is one to four eggs and incubation takes 12 to 13 days. The eggs are white , usually unmarked.
Calls and Songs
A sharp chip! alarm call is used by both sexes and a high pitched buzzed zeeep is used as a contact call. Their song is a high-pitched buzzed sweet-sweet chew-chew sweet-sweet, by the male.